Explained: The four web accessibility principles
Every user that hears about you should be able to view your site and access your services without issue – that means adhering to the POUR web accessibility principles
The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) were published to provide comprehensive recommendations for making web content accessible to users, including those with visual impairments, loss of hearing, limited mobility, speech difficulties, photosensitivity, learning disabilities and cognitive limitations.
To easily map the many elements behind making web content accessible, it has been organised into the acronym ‘POUR’. These four guiding principles, upon which WCAG has been built, are a way of approaching web accessibility:
Principle 1: Perceivable
All your information and user interface (UI) components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive. This ensures that information can be comprehended by at least one of the user’s senses at any given time.
To meet this principle, your content needs to be adaptable – for example, allowing users to read text in larger print or simpler layouts without reducing the information presented to them. This is especially important for time-based media such as videos and podcasts, for which subtitles and transcripts are essential. Making your content easily distinguishable is an easily overlooked element of site design, with many outlets presenting ‘dark mode’ options to meet this element of accessibility.
The four guidelines of the Perceivable principle are:
- 1.1 Text Alternatives: Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.
- 1.2 Time-based Media: Provide alternatives for time-based media.
- 1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.
- 1.4 Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.
Principle 2: Operable
All components of your UI and navigation must be operable. In other words, your interface cannot demand a form of interaction that a user may not be able to perform.
This web accessibility principle is all about making sure users know where they are in your content and how they can navigate through it. Allowing users to easily move through your site and interact with elements using the Tab key is a common way of meeting several parts of this principle, although you should also consider if you use any videos or graphics that may cause reactions in people with photosensitive epilepsy.
The five guidelines of the Operable principle are:
- 2.1 Keyboard Accessible: Make all functionality available from a keyboard.
- 2.2 Enough Time: Provide users with enough time to read and use your content.
- 2.3 Seizures: Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.
- 2.4 Navigable: Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.
- 2.5 Input Modalities: Make it easier for users to operate functionality through various inputs beyond a keyboard.
Principle 3: Understandable
All your information and the operation of your UI must be understandable. That means ensuring that, no matter who is using your site or services, they can always easily comprehend what page they are on and how they should progress through to the information or service they need.
The three guidelines of the Understandable principle are:
- 3.1 Readable: Make text content readable and understandable.
- 3.2 Predictable: Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.
- 3.3 Input Assistance: Help users avoid and correct mistakes.
Principle 4: Robust
The final principle considers how your content interacts with different user agents, including assistive technologies. In short, your content should remain accessible as these technologies continue to evolve. The Robust principle has only one element:
- 4.1 Compatible: Maximise compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.
What are the web accessibility guidelines?
We’ve explained the POUR web accessibility principles, but you should know that each WCAG principle has additional guidelines to help you achieve full compliance. For example, ensuring that your content is Distinguishable (1.4) has guidance covering the following elements:
- Use of colour
- Audio control
- Contrast (minimum)
- Resizing text
- Images of text
- Contrast (enhanced)
- Low or no background audio
- Visual presentation
- Images of text (no exception)
- Non-text contrast
- Text spacing
- Content on hover or focus
In total, there are 58 guidelines to improve your accessibility to various levels:
- 30 guidelines for A-level compliance
- An additional 20 for AA-level compliance
- An additional 28 for AAA-level compliance
We always recommend meeting AAA-level compliance because it ensures your content is fully accessible to anyone who views it. However, we provide compliance audits to all levels under our Bronze, Silver, Gold and Platinum packages.
Will the web accessibility principles change?
WCAG 2.0 was published in December 2008, which was then expanded on with WCAG 2.1 in June 2018. These are the guidelines that the above principles and their explanations have been taken from. WCAG 2.2 has been drafted and is scheduled to be released in 2023, upon which this page will be updated to reflect any changes. However, it is expected that WCAG 2.2 will again expand on the previous guidelines and are unlikely to introduce new principles outside the POUR structure.
WCAG 3.0 is currently a working draft and is expected to be a larger revision of the web accessibility principles. Although WCAG 3.0 is viewable from the Web Accessibility Initiative site, they are not fully published and should not be seen as guidelines your organisation need to adhere to at this moment in time.